Alpha Pinene

CAS: 80-56-8
FEMA No: 2902

Alpha Pinene Molecule

Pinene consists of two isomers, alpha and beta, depending on the position of the double bond within the molecule. It is an alkene and contains a highly reactive four membered ring perpendicular to the main ring, prone to skeletal rearrangements. Both the – and + enantiomers are seen in nature. – alpha pinene is mostly seen in European pines, and + alpha pinene mostly in North American pines. The racemic mixture is seen in eucalyptus and citrus oils. Pinene is used in nature with the ozone to condense aerosols that could harm the environment.

ATTRIBUTES

Sources

Conifer Trees, Rosemary, Eucalyptus, Sage, Ironwort, Turpentine Trees, Citrus

Aroma

Earthy, Piney, Turpentine-like, Woody

Flavor Profile

Cedarwood, Pine, Sharp

Benefit

Anti-bacterial, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Bronchodilator, Memory Enhancer

Research

Anti-inflammatory

With acute pancreatitis, alpha-pinene treatment reduced histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas and lungs. Furthermore, alpha-pinene pretreatment reduced the production of pancreatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 during acute pancreatitis. In vitro, alpha-pinene inhibited cerulein-induced cell death and cytokine production in isolated cerulein-treated pancreatic acinar cells. This could point to alpha-pinene possibly having beneficial effects with pancreatic cancer and maybe diabetes. It has been shown that alpha pinene has anti-inflammatory effects in human chondrocytes, thus exhibiting potential antiosteoarthritic activity. + alpha pinene was shown to inhibit the interleukin -1beta- induced inflammatory and catabolic pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and c-Jun N-terminal kinases activation, and the expressionof the inflammatory (iNOS) and catabolic (MMP-1 and -13) genes.

Anti-bacterial

As tested through solid medium diffusion procedure, pinene exhibited toxic effects against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogene

Anti-cancer

Mice placed in an environment enriched with a-pinene demonstrated reduced melanoma growth, and tumor volume of the mice was about 40% smaller than that in the control mice. In another study, alpha-pinene was identified as an active anti-proliferative compound on liver cancer BEL-7402 cells using the MTT assay. Alpha-pinene inhibited BEL-7402 cells by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, downregulating Cdc25C mRNA and protein expression, and reducing cycle dependence on kinase 1(CDK1) activity.

Memory Enhancer

Alpha pinene has been shown to be a uncompetitive reversible inhibitor of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The essential oil of sage having, camphor, 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate, alpha pinene and several other terpenes in much smaller concentrations were exposed to human cells. Since many memory-enhancing and dementia drugs are based on inhibiting cholinesterase to enhance cholinergic activity, it is thought that alpha pinene may act as an effective supplement for such conditions.

synergy

Synergistic effects with…

Cannabinoids

Anti-inflammatory - CBD
Bronchodilator - THC
Memory enhancer - CBD
Anti-bacterial - CBN, CBG

Cannabis

Common strains high in Alpha Pinene

AMS 81.97
Arjan's haze 75.93
Arjan's haze #3 68.23
Arjan's haze # 2 56.54
Great white shark 65.69
Himalayan gold 79.51
Jack herer 60.10
Super silver haze 59.84
Trainwreck 61.59
White widow 67.75

SCIENCE

Monoterpene

  • Formula: C10H16
  • Molecular Mass: 136.23404 g/mol
  • Relative Density: 0.858 g/ml at 25 C
  • Water Solubility: 0.00004 g/L at 20 C
  • Auto-ignition Temp: 255 C
  • Melting Point: -62.5 C
  • Boiling Point: 155 C
  • Flash Point: 33 C

Synonyms

Alpha Pinene is also know by these other names

  • Pinene
  • α-Pinene
  • (±)-α-Pinene
  • (±)-2-Pinene
  • 7785-70-8 [RN]
  • 219-445-9 [EINECS]
  • 232-087-8 [EINECS]
  • 2,6,6-Trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene [ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • Bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, 2,6,6-trimethyl- [ACD/Index Name]

SAFETY

LD50: Mice 3,700 mg/kg

Storage: 2-8 C, proper ventilation, spark proof environment

Danger

Flammable liquid and vapor. Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool. Store locked up. Keep away from heat / sparks / open flames / hot surfaces. No smoking. Keep container tightly closed. Ground / bond container and receiving equipment. Use explosion-proof electrical / ventilating / lighting / equipment. Use only non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures against static discharge. In case of fire: Use dry sand, dry chemical or alcohol-resistant foam for extinction. May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. Causes skin irritation and may cause an allergic skin reaction. Avoid breathing dust / fume / gas / mist / vapours / spray. Wash skin thoroughly after handling. Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace. Avoid release to the environment. Wear protective gloves / eye protection / face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor / physician. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove / Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water / shower. Do NOT induce vomiting. If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice / attention. Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Harmful to aquatic life. Dispose of contents / container to an approved waste disposal plant.

DISCUSSION

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