Limonene

CAS: 5989-27-5
FEMA No: 2633

Limonene Molecule

Limonene has a strong citrus odor and flavor, the highest amounts are seen in citrus peels. Limonene is commonly used in perfume, house cleaners, food and medicine, partial due to it’s nice aroma and low toxicity. Limonene has been used as a house remedy for acne and athlete’s foot in the past. Limonene has been shown to be a potent antidepressant and anti-anxiety treatment comparable to some traditional medicines. Limonene has also been inferred to be an anti-inflammatory, lowering or preventing key stages in the reaction. Limonene was elucidated in being a potential treatment for breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer.

ATTRIBUTES

Sources

All Citrus

Aroma

Citrus, Fresh, Orange, Sweet

Flavor Profile

Citrus

Benefit

Anti-anxiety, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Antidepressant

Research

Antidepressant/Anti-anxiety

Limonene demonstrated increased social interaction time and decreased immobility time, in the forced swim test using mice, indicating anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. The effects were comparable with the traditional anxiolytic diazepam and the antidepressant fluoxetine.

Anti-Inflammatory

Limonene was evaluated against human eosinophilic leukemia cells, specifically looking at reactive oxygen species (ROS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Limonene was found to inhibit cytokine and ROS production, while inactivating eosinophil migration.

Anti-Cancer

Limonene has been attributed to induction of phase I and phase II enzymes that result in carcinogen detoxification. In two prostate cancer cell lines, limonene administration resulted in higher ROS generation, depletion of GSH, accompanied by increased caspase. In addition limonene results in differentiation of cancer cells as well. Breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines were also negatively affected.

synergy

Synergistic effects with…

Cannabinoids

CBD,CBG,CBN - anti-cancer
CBG- anti-depressant

Other Terpenes

Linalool - anti-anxiety

Cannabis

Common strains high in Limonene

Arjan’s haze #1 3.91
Arjan’s haze #3 3.70
Super lemon haze 3.71

SCIENCE

Monoterpene

  • Formula: C10H16
  • Molecular Mass: 136.23 g/mol
  • Relative Density: 0.842 at 20 C
  • Melting Point: -74.3 C
  • Boiling Point: 176 C
  • Flash Point: 50 C

Synonyms

Limonene is also know by these other names

  • α-Limonene
  • (±)-Limonene
  • Limonene, dl-
  • 138-86-3 [RN]
  • 6876-12-6 [RN]
  • 7705-14-8 [RN]
  • Limonene, (±)-
  • Mentha-1,8-diene
  • 1,8-p-Mentadiene
  • (±)-(RS)-limonene
  • 229-977-3 [EINECS]
  • 231-732-0 [EINECS]
  • p-mentha-1,8-diene
  • limonene, (±)-isomer
  • Mentha-1,8-diene, DL
  • DL-p-mentha-1,8-diene
  • p-Mentha-1,8-diene, (±)-
  • p-Mentha-1,8-diene, DL-
  • Methyl-4-isopropenylcyclohexene
  • Methyl-4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene
  • 1-Methyl-4-methylethenylcyclohexene
  • Cyclohexene, 4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-
  • Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene
  • 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohexene
  • 4-(1-methylethenyl)-1-methyl-cyclohexene
  • 4-Isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene [ACD/IUPAC Name]
  • Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)- [ACD/Index Name]

SAFETY

LD50: Mice > 5,500 mg/kg

Storage: 2 – 8 C, proper ventilation, spark proof environment.

DANGER

Flammable liquid and vapor. Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool. Store locked up. Keep away from heat / sparks / open flames / hot surfaces. No smoking. Keep container tightly closed. Ground / bond container and receiving equipment. Use explosion-proof electrical / ventilating / lighting equipment. Use only non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures against static discharge. In case of fire: Use appropriate media to extinguish. Collect spillage. May be harmful if swallowed or in contact with skin. May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. Causes skin irritation and may cause an allergic skin reaction.Avoid breathing mist or vapor. Wash thoroughly after handling. Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace. Avoid release to the environment. Wear protective gloves / eye protection / face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER / doctor. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water / shower. Call a POISON CENTER / doctor if you feel unwell. Do NOT induce vomiting. If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice / attention. Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.Dispose of contents / container in accordance with local / regional / national / international regulations.

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